Arakan

The land that is known as Arakan by the foreigners is called Rakhaing-pray by its own people, Rakhaing-thar (Arakanese) who were titled this name in honour of preservation on their national heritage and ethics or morality.

Buddhism in Indonesia, Past and Present by Ven. Ditthisampanno (4)

Posted by Arakan Indobhasa Monday, September 1, 2014

Revival of Buddhist Education in Indonesia 
The new order era schools must provide religious education. Buddhists began to pay attention to the development of education. Perbudhi and PUUI yan initially moves in the field of broadcasting and religious services at the monastery, began organizing a cetiya/courses-reserved Buddhist teachers and assigning their activist plunge into schools. Understaffed and Buddhist schools of education are still felt to this day. Many Buddhists traditionally follow another religious education at school, then moved the religion. Buddhists are not only founded a monastery, but also began to develop the school. Like Buddhists Tridharma in Jakarta set up “Sila Paramita” Buddhist School (1967). Later founded a school in Jambi is “Sariputra School” and the Tri Ratna School in Sibolga, North Sumatra, and so on. To print the teacher of Buddhism, Buddhists in Semarang is a pioneer in the presence of the Buddhist Teachers School “Smaratungga” in Boyolali[19]. In Banyumas also founded Buddhist Teachers School “Mpu Tantular”[20].
At Jakarta in 1979 founded the Nalanda Buddhist Academy (now the Nalanda Buddhist College). Up in 2010 there are 15 Buddhist College are recorded, among them: Nalanda Buddhist College (Jakarta), Smaratungga Buddhist College (Boyolali), Mahaprajna Buddhist College (Cilincing-Jakarta), the Buddhist Srivijaya Empire State College (Banten), Kertarajasa Buddhist College (Unfortunate), Sailendra dynasty Buddhist College (Semarang), Bodhi Dharma Buddhist College (Medan), Ashin Jinarakkhita Buddhist College (Lampung), Raden Wijaya Buddhist College (Wonogiri), Dutavira Buddhist College (Jakarta), etc. some of them became the member of International Association of Buddhist Universities (IABU) and Association of Theravada Buddhist Universities (ATBU).


Conclusion
Buddhism is a religion which has since long been embraced by most of society archipelago. Srivijaya and Majapahit era was the golden era for Buddhism. The existence of Buddhism in Nusantara (Indonesia) can be proven by the existence of a legacy-legacy in the form of inscriptions and buildings of the temple as well as foreign literature, particularly literature-originating from China. A tradition or school of Buddhism that held by Nusantara society was non-Mahayana Buddhism, however, for the development of subsequent Mahayana and the Surmang Foundation became more popular in the community. This is evidenced by the many historical relics that have the value of the philosophy of Mahayana and the Tantrayana. From historical relics can also be seen that there has been a follow between Hinduism-Shiva with Mahayana Buddhism in Indonesia.
After experiencing two heyday, i.e. the Srivijaya and Majapahit Empires, Buddhism in Indonesia finally decline after the fall of Majapahit Kingdom. But after four days, after 500 years later since the collapse of the Kingdom of Mahapahit in 1478, Buddhism began to bounce back from his sleep. Travel the revival and development of Buddhism beginning in the colonial era to the present through a winding road. Various problems arise alternately.
At the time of colonization, the development of Buddhism face constraints include lack of notable understand Buddha Dharma and confront aggression missionaries of other religions. During the old order, independence and development of Buddhism tinged by differences of opinions and views among Buddhists leaders giving rise to turmoil here and there until the establishment of various Buddhist organizations. In addition, the Government has not acknowledged the attitude of Buddhism as the official religion, has narrowed the motion the development of Buddhism. However during this time, was born the Sangha Indonesia as Buddhists protector.
Buddhism became one of the official religion of the development of Buddhism in coloring the new order era. In addition, the formation of a single Container and chaos within the Organization WALUBI also occurred during this period. Instead of unifying the whole Buddhists all over Indonesia, not so long ago, the presence of the hostile hospital and the split cause WALUBI amongst Buddhists. caused any prejudice, misconceptions, and the impositions of a few unscrupulous private interests Trustees WALUBI.
The dissolution of the old WALUBI and established New-WALUBI for the purpose of burying the problem exists, it appears that does not give a good impact. Even so, there is a bright side of the chaos that ensued. At least Buddhist Sangha Institution which eventually have to sit abreast KASI with the institutions of the clergy in other religions.
The new paradigm in buddhism which envolved today is a single container is no longer a necessity. Each Assembly or religious organizations have the freedom, and therefore is responsible for implementing the vision and mission. Each of them. not to intervene in each other. Diversity is preserved without neglecting the unity, tolerance, mutual understanding, and brotherhood. Experience teaches that the hostile hospital organisation and conflicts occur because of abuse of power/position for personal gain, the use of violence to impose their will and practices that deviate from the values of religious (Scriptural). The Buddhist community becomes increasingly idealized through inter-disciplinary approach to appreciate and understand the sect with the various schools of Buddhism. Inter-religious dialogue is increasingly developed, so did the inter-ethnic dialogue sects (particularly in the mainstream environment or KASI). Globalization and advances in information technology have presented various influences from abroad. Monk/biksuni or foreign dharmaduta more and more are visiting Indonesia. Further efforts to safely Buddhist teachings through socially engaged Buddhism, Buddhist social care, has become increasingly evident. That movement does not just come from the assemblies, but also more recently a prominent Buddhist Tzu Chi Foundation (based in Taiwan) spreading the love without discriminating group, nation, and religion.
Reference
Ming, Chau. Beberapa Aspek tentang Agama Buddha Mahayana, Jakarta: Sasana, 1987 and 1994.
Ming, Chau. Filsafat Buddhis Mahayana. Jakarta: Sasana, 1985
Wahyono, Mulyadi. Pokok-pokok Dasar Agama Buddha, Jakarta: Ditjen Bimas Hindu Buddha Depag RI, 1992.
Widya, dr. D. K. Sejarah Perkembangan Agama Buddha, Jakarta: Ditjen Bimas Hindu & Buddha Depag RI-UT, 1993
Rusli, HS. Teori dan Praktek Tantra-Vajrayana, Medan: IBC, 1982.
Narada, Sang Buddha & Ajaran-ajarannya, Malang: Yayasan Dhammadipa Arama 1996.
S.Widyadharma, Dhamma Sari. Jakarta: Yayasan Dhammadipa Arama, 1990.
Kiprah Kasogatan Jakarta: 1994
Dharmakusumah, Alam Kematian sementara (Bardo Tholdo), Jakarta: 1992.
Soekmono, R. Pengantar Sejarah kebudayaan Indonesia, Jakarta: Djambatan, 1973.
Tim Penerjemah, Sanghyang Kamahayanikan, Jakarta: Ditjen Bimas Hindu & Buddha Depag RI, 1979.
Tim Penyusun, Perkembangan Agama Buddha di Indonesia, Jakarta: Lembaga Litbang Majelis Buddhayana Indonesia, 2005
Kern, J.H.C and Rassers, W.H, Çiwa and Buddha. Jakarta: Djambatan, 1982
Kandahjaya, Hudaya. The Master Key for Reading Borobudur Symbolism, Jakarta: Penerbit Karaniya, 1995.
_________, Ashin Jinarakkhita and Adi Buddha in Indonesian Buddhism, (paper), presented in the Numata Conference on Buddhism and Islam at McGill University, in 2009 and at the 16th Congress of International Association of Buddhist Studies, Dharma Drum Buddhist College, Taiwan, in 2011.
Electronic Sources


[1]    Presented on International Conference “Buddhism and Australia 2012” that be held on February, 2nd - 4th 2012. in Murdoch University, Perth – Australia.
[2]    He is a Buddhist Lecturer and Dean of Dharma Achariya in Smaratungga Buddhist College, Indonesia. Now he still study in for Graduate School of Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University, Thailand in Buddhist Studies Program.
[3]    No Name, History of Buddhist Development in Indonesia, published , Monday, July, 16th 2007 http://dharmoghandul.blogspot.com/2007/07/sejarah-perkembangan-agama-buddha-di.html, retrieved at December, 20th 2011.
[4]    Kandahjaya, The Master Key for Reading symbolism Borobudur (Jakarta: Karaniya, 1995) p. 10.
[5]    Soekmono in Kandahjaya, Hudaya, op.cit, p.14
[6]    According to CL. Salmon 's worth “kelenteng” derived from a kuan yin teng (kuan yin temple).
[7]    He is the founder of the first Buddhist school in Indonesia. The school is located in Jakarta's original Batavia English School (1931), was closed at the time of Japan's colonization, then reopened under the name Sin Hwa English School (1945), and the latter being the chaitya School in 1955. Prior to becoming biku, Tee Boan's been also taught at the school. The school has a Buddhist Chaitya, first Buddhist places of worship in Jakarta that no institution of the said.
[8]    Support Perbudhi to the Sangha Indonesia and stated as the refuge of Perbudhi in addition to Maha Sangha Indonesia has caused PUUI, whose name has been changed to The Scholars of Buddhism Indonesia (MUABI) States out of the Perbudhi.
[9]    There are several versions of which is to say that:”... Until the mid-1970s, Buddhists in Indonesia is composed of many organizations. At that time there were few organizations of Buddhists who were active in the field of coaching is not nurtured by religious Sangha (that is the time). Based on the existence of the situation and condition of Buddhists in Indonesia like that, then in the afternoon on October 23, 1976, housed in the Maha Vihara Dhammaloka (now Vihara Tanah Putih), Semarang, some Buddhist monks and devotees namely: Ven. Aggabalo, Ven. Khemasarano, Ven. Sudhammo, Ven. Khemiyo, and Ven Nanavutto; Mr. Suratin MS., Mr. Mochtar Rashid, and Mrs. Supangat, to the agreement to form Sangha Theravada Indonesia. See on 30 tahun Pengabdian Sangha Theravada Indonesia, hal. 98-99, Diambil dari : http://samaggi-phala.or.id/berita/awal_sti.html
[10]  The initiator of Foundation of Sangha Mahayana Indonesia namely Bhiksu Dharmabatama Mahasthavira (Huat Sien), Bhiksu Heng Sin Sakyaputra Mahasthavira (Zinc Hiong), Bhiksu Dharmasagaro Sthavira (Ting Hay), Bhiksu Mioa Kai, Bhiksu Ru Kong, Bhiksu Dharmasetya Sthavira (Xing Xiu), Bhiksu Cong Miao Huat, Bhiksuni Ti Gie Yao, Bhiksuni Beng Kie, and Bhiksuni Tuan Sin. Its Administrator consists of the Most Ven. Dharmasagaro (General Chairpersons), Ven. Dharmabatama (1st Chairperson), Ven. Sakyasakti (2nd Chairman), Ven. Dutavira (General Secretary), Ven. Dhyanavira (1st Secretary) and Ven. Andhanavira (2nd Secretary). Sangha Mahayana Indonesia, conceived the idea of construction of Pusdiklat Mahayana Buddhism Indonesia. The ideals of the Sangha is disseminating the teachings of Mahayana Buddhism in Indonesia Indonesia language as well as using translating Scriptures of Buddhism into the language of Indonesia.
[11]  prefixed to the 'twin' AD/ ART and followed with sackings 13 steward Central Leaders of walubi derived from membership Indonesian Buddhayana Assembly (MBI) and Sangha Agung Indonesia, the conflict in WALUBI was continue dismissal of the membership of Indonesian buddhayana assembly (MBI) with Decree no. 135 /sk/dpp wlb/1.8 /x/94. then walubi issued the decision no. 141/sk/dpp wlb/1.8/94 about dismissal of the order of Sangha Agung Indonesia (SAGIN) and Indonesian buddhayana Assembly (MBI) from walubi on october 15 1994.
[12]  At the time of the new order Government hold a clearance against Buddhist religious institutions with cleaning it from indigenous Chinese elements is considered a foreign culture. This provision is based on the instructions of the Minister of Home Affairs (No. 455.2 -360) 1988 about structuring a temple not justified using the term vihara or cetiya. In other words the monastery or cetya shouldn't show the symbols or Chinese culture.
[13]  Soekarno, in Kandahjaya, Hudaya op.cit., p.4.
[14]  Although Buddhism has officially become a State religion, but the use of the term Sanghyang Adi Buddha as a God and its own controversies being debated among Buddhists Indonesia until now. This is because the concept of the Adi Buddha just trance dance in the schools of Vajrayana/Tantrayana Buddhism is not God in the sense of Personality God like monotheis religion (religion of Abraham). Politicization by using and menyandingkan term Adi Buddha trance dance as a personal God is contrary to the teachings of Buddhism that is basically nonteis. With the existence of this politicization, making Buddhism in Indonesia to be a little different with Buddhism in the world.
[15]  Jan Bakker, Laurence-Khantipalo Mills, and Egaku Mayeda in Kandahjaya, Hudaya. Ashin Jinarakkhita and Adi Buddha in Indonesian Buddhayana (Paper that presented at the Numata Conference on Buddhism and Islam at Macgil University in 2009, and at the 16th Congress of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, Dharma Drum Buddhist College, Taiwan, in 2011.
[16]  Adi Buddha is another name of Dharmakaya which is an embodiment of the five Dhyani-Buddha-. Adi Buddha is the Primordial Buddha, the one, or is called also paramadi Buddha (Buddha of the first and unmatched), Anadi Buddha (the Buddha neither created), Uru-Buddha (Buddha of all Buddhas), also called adinatha (first patron), swayambhu (that is by itself), svayambhulokanatha (protector of the world that exists by itself), or Sanghyang Adwaya (there is no second to none). The term comes from the tradition of the adi Buddha Aisvarika (Isvara, the Lord, the blessed Buddha), the nepal Mahayana spread through Bengal, up to known on Java island.
[17]  Ven. Jinnarakkhita reveals to the TEMPO, ' ... but I did hold to the principle that the Buddhism in Indonesia is a Buddhist Deity Who is the one true God. Which in Buddhism is called Sang-Hyang in Buddhism. I took a stance of Buddhist in Indonesia should be oriented to the Buddhist Borobudur. Due to the Borobudur--Mahayana Buddhist who knew the Sang Hyang Adi Buddha. Because it is a religion See on Buddhist '.'Berkiblat ke Borobudur' retrieved on December, 20th 2011. http://majalah.tempointeraktif.com/id/arsip/1973/11/03/AG/mbm.19731103.AG63253.id.html
[18]  The concept of divinity can be found in Sanghyang Kamahayanikan, the kelurak inscription, the Kunjarakarna Dharmakathana, Gandhavyuha-Sutra, Namasangiti, karanda-vyuha, svayambhu purana, mahavairocanabhisambodhi-sutra, guhya-samaya sutra, Tattvasangraha-sutra, and paramadi Buddhodharta-Sri Kalacakra-Sutra.
[19]  which then evolved into the Academy of education science of Buddhism (1986) and transformed into the Institute of Buddhist Studies (IIAB) Smaratungga. In 2000 transformed again into a Smaratungga Buddhist College.
[20]  The school was later developed into the Academy, and the latter being the high school of Buddhism ' Mpu Tantular '. unfortunately in 2000s closed, because the problem management system.

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