Monday, September 1, 2014

Buddhism in Indonesia, Past and Present by Ven. Ditthisampanno (3)

Post Sectarian Periods

Indonesian Buddhist Trusteeship Council (Perwalian Umat Buddha Indonesia (Walubi))
Minister of religious affairs Alamsyah Ratu Perwiranegara held a meeting with the leadership of all assemblies and sangha in Indonesia. In this meeting all the Tribunal's Sangha stated all sects of Buddhism, based on the belief That the one true God with different designations. In this meeting established Perwalian Umat Buddha Indonesia (WALUBI) representing Buddhists in 1978. This name given by Minister of religious affairs Alamsyah Ratu Perwiranegara.
Walubi is federate with members: 1. Sangha Theravada Indonesia, 2. Sangha Mahayana Indonesia, 3. Sangha Agung Indonesia 4. Assemblies: 1. Assembly of the Buddhist Nichiren Syosyu Indonesia 2. Assembly of Mahayana Buddhism Indonesia 3. Assembly Dharmaduta Kasogatan, 4. Assembly of the Priest of Buddha Dhamma Indonesia (Mapanbudhi) 5. The Buddha Maitreya Priest Indonesia (Mapanbumi) 6. All Indonesia Assembly Chaplain Tridharma 7. The Scholars of Buddhism Indonesia (MUABI) after Buddhist Congress renamed The Indonesian Buddhayana Council (MBI).
Walubi Chaired by Suparto Hs from Mapanbudhi with Ir. T. Soekarno from NSI and advisor Board chaired by Soemantri M.S, from MUABI. Walubi have the Trial Sangha's and placing the three sanghas as an institution fatwa was with its chairman Ven. Ashin Jinarakkhita. The arrangement of its administrator is as follows:
Suparto Hs. From Majelis Pandita Buddha Dharma Indonesia as Chairperson (General Sekretary).
  1. 1.Central Board (DPP) WALUBI, are:
    1. 1.Suwarto Kolopaking, SH. (MUABI)
    2. 2.Ir. T. Soekarno (Nichiren Shoshu Indonesia)
    3. 3.Gunawan Sindhumarto, SH. ( Majelis Agama Buddha Mahayana Indonesia )
    4. 4.Drs. Oka Diputhera (Majelis Dharmaduta Kasogatan Indonesia)
    5. 5.Bhaggadewa Siddharta (Majelis Rohaniawan Tridharma Seluruh Indonesia)
    6. 6.Herman S. Endro, SH. (Majelis Pandita Buddha Dharma Indonesia)
    7. 7.Ir. Hartanto Kulle (Majelis Pandita Buddha Maitreya Indonesia)
    8. 2.Honor council, are:
      1. 1.Soemantri MS. (MUABI-MBI)
      2. 2.Sumeda Widyadharma ( Majelis Pandita Buddha Dharma Indonesia)
      3. 3.Giriputra Soemarsono (Majelis Dharmaduta Kasogatan Indonesia)
      4. 4.IS. Susilo (Majelis Agama Buddha Mahayana Indonesi)
      5. 5.Zen Dharma (Majelis Pandita Buddha Maitreya Indonesia)
      6. 6.Sasanaputera ( Majelis Rohaniawan Tridharma Seluruh Indonesia)
      7. 7.Seno Soenoto (Nichiren Shoshu Indonesia)
The workshop was held on February 20, 1978 in Jakarta produced the document “the stabilization of the Buddhist Teaching Workshops in Indonesia National Personality”. Results of this workshop is the Foundation to hold a Congress of Buddhists Indonesia.
After held Pre-Congress, Indonesian Buddhist Congress was held on May 8, 1979 in Yogyakarta. Pledge of Buddhists in which among others will carry out with a vengeance and it as well-good all statutes and decisions of the Indonesian Buddhist Congress, stated in an open forum before the Minister of religious affairs Alamsyah Ratu Perwiranegara in a National Ceremony on Vesak on May 10, 1979 in Mendut Temple and signed by all Buddhist Sangha and the Tribunal, including NSI, which at that time recognized as Buddhism that is similar to other assemblies.
The Congress confirmed the Decision of Buddhists Indonesia Workshop the stabilization of the teachings of Buddhism with Indonesia's national Personalities. Results of the Congress that include a code of conduct, Criteria of Buddhism, Buddhist Indonesia Pledge and the inaugural resolutions of Workshops the stabilization of the teachings of Buddhism With Indonesia's national Personalities. The decision regarding the admission of all sects of Buddhism in Indonesia against:
  1. 1.The belief of God (all sects respect different designations to refer to God, but in fact one and the same)
  2. 2.Buddha Gotama as Prophet (Great Teacher).
  3. 3.Holding the Tripitaka Scriptures of the Pali Canon and are committed to carrying out/Guidelines and Implementing Pancasila elegant timepiece.
Criteria the Buddhist religion in indonesia , i e the presence of : the lord of almighty god, triratna / tiratana , trilaksana law / tilakkhana , catur arya satyani / cattari ariya saccani, pratitya samutpada / paticcasamuppada , karma / kamma , punarbhava / punnabhava , nirvana / nibbana, and the bodhisattva / bodhisatta .
The code of conduct also decided at the Congress include:
  1. 1.Buddhists is a large family with the same teachers, though professing different sects.
  2. 2.In the teachings of the sect preached themselves must pass speech, attitudes, and actions to the detriment of other sects.
  3. 3.Each coaching people are encouraged to learn also other sects, positively steeped in the teachings of the sect other than its own.
  4. 4.In any event excluded personal considerations, group, or material advantage. Each Member of the other members help each other walubi in an attempt to hold of Buddhist infrastructure and Buddhism develop.
  5. 5.Each Member also abstain from actions that could undermine the atmosphere of family unity, and spreading the dharma in accordance with the Scriptures and does not interfere with the Affairs of the household of another members of Walubi.
Results of the Indonesian Buddhist Congress is the basis and large means to bring about harmony, unity and unity of Buddhists in Indonesia. With the results of the Congress which is the basis of harmony, unity and unity of Buddhists is not the means that will be immediately created harmony. It is not easy to implement program Walubi in the first years of the formation.
In 1981, held an extraordinary Congress Walubi. Results of the extraordinary Congress was the replacement of the DPP Walubi. The new Chairman is Soemantri M.S from MBI and Secretary General of the Seno Sunoto of NSI.
In 1980, The Guidance Customs Hindu and Buddhist Societies formed an institution under the name Combined the monastery, Temple, Gray's House (Gavikra), but the Agency is not to develop, because the temple-monasteries and temples as well as the home of deashes already was under the coaching socio-political service Assembly.
Replacement of the leadership is not bringing an increase in Walubi Concord intern Buddhists and terlaksananya Walubi program, but rather Welcome the day of Vesak as Secretary General of the Seno Sunoto Walubi contained in newspapers 'Sinar Harapan' in 1983 were contrary to the code of conduct and results of the workshop on the stabilization of the teachings of Buddhism. In his speech that Seno Sunoto changed the Feast day of Vesak as a reply to Bob for Buddhists based on the philosophy and Outlook on life of Japan. Protests in the newspaper can be stopped so as not to cause unrest and disrupt unity more amongst the Buddhists. Those problems would be resolved by DP Walubi Center. However, the issue was never resolved.
Then in early 1985 arise again disquiet amongst the Buddhists in Central Java, especially in Wonogiri about other Buddha at the presence of addition to Gautama Buddha. In a consultation officials Directorate General of the Hindu-Buddhist Bimas with Buddhist leaders, Seno admitted that Niciren Daisyonim is a Buddhist. The problem about the existence of two Buddhas are contrary to the criteria of the Buddhist code of ethics and the results of the workshop the stabilization of the teachings of Buddhism and damage internal unity of Buddhists, are not resolved by the DPP Walubi came to the 1st Walubi Congress in 1986.

1st Walubi Congress
The 1st Walubi Congress was held on 8-11 July 1986 confirming the results of the Congress of the people of Indonesia about the Buddhist code of ethics, the criteria of Buddhism in Indonesia, Buddhism with a national personality, Indonesia pledge Buddhists Indonesia. In the Congress was elected General Chairman was the Most Venerable Girirakkhito and his Deputy were Drs. Aggi Tjetje.
Based on the Widyaka Sabha fatwā Walubi and historically, factual and faith, that NSI has strayed from the criteria of Buddhism in Indonesia, as well as violating the code of conduct and decision workshops the stabilization of the teachings of Buddhism with Indonesia which has National Personality was confirmed by the Congress of the Buddhists and Congress Walubi. This result does not use Niciren Syosyu Indonesia as part of the Buddhism, therefore the NSI excluded from Walubi on July 10, 1987.

2nd Walubi Congress
2nd WALUBI Congress was held in Desember, 7th 1992, who returns choose Ven. Girirakkhito as a chairperson. For General Secretary was be choose Drs. Budi Setiawan (Director of Buddhist Society, Department of Religious Affairs). The Congress also chose the Dra. Siti Hartati Murdaya as Board of trustees. Congress formed The Framers By law Walubi consists of 30 peoples.
Buddhist organizations re-occurring conflict after the Congress because of a difference opinions regarding the work of the Framers Bylaw. This continued until the occurrence of acts of violence reported to National Commission for Human Rights. SAGIN and MBI expelled from Walubi[11] by reason of the discipline of the Organization and teaching. Both were accused of heresy because syncretism, divisive, as well as animating chinese custom.[12]  

Konferensi Agung Sangha Indonesia (KASI)

Konferensi Agung Sangha Indonesia was formed on 14 November 1998 as a means to streamline and returns the position of the Sangha who suffered riot as a result of internal conflicts and the existence of Walubi and misrelationships among members of Walubi. KASI was founded by the monks of the three Sangha in Indonesia: Sangha Theravada Indonesia, Sangha Mahayana Indonesia, dan Sangha Agung Indonesia, supported by assemblies of autonomous under the auspices of these sanghas, as the Indonesian Buddhayana Council (MBI), Assembly of Buddhism Theravada Indonesia (Magabudhi), and The Mahayana Buddhism Indonesia (Magabhumi).
A manuscript of establishment of Indonesian Sangha Great Conference (KASI) was signed together by :
ñ  Most Ven.Dharmasagaro Mahasthavira : Ketua Sangha Mahayana Indonesia
ñ  Most Ven. Sri Pannavaro Mahathera : Ketua Sangha Theravadha Indonesia
ñ  Most Ven. Arya Maitri Mahasthavira : Wakil Ketua Sangha Agung Indonesia
ñ  Most Ven. Prajnavira Mahasthavira who choosed as General Secretary
KASI is the association of sangha sangha ( of a fraternity the monk . bhiksu ) from a meeting ( conference ) supreme. with a holding in the Scriptures of Buddhism (Pali Tripitaka, Mahayanis, Tibetan/kanjur), this agency as decision considering the Dhamma (Dhammaniyoga). Although KASI is The Sangha-are members of the Sangha is its administrator/monks, but the monk of KASI also remained involved laity as helmate of the sangha.
According to The Tripitaka, the Sangha and the Laity is a group standing respectively. The presence of the Sangha is a mandatory law, whereas the presence of lay organizations (the Layperson) is indeed laudable, but not a must. A lay organization be changed or may be disbanded and renamed, but the Sangha to be preserved its existence with all its provisions as mentioned in the Vinaya Scriptures of the Pali Canon/Tripitaka. In a meeting with the Minister of religious affairs, also reported some activity KASI, among others: following the Work of the Executive Committee Meeting II VI World Buddhist Sangha Council (WBSC) in Sri Lanka on February 17-22 April 1999 and holding a Vesak With se-North Sumatra in Medan. Leadership of the World Buddhist Sangha Council (WBSC) is pleased to welcome the formation of KASI, and also raised the Most Venereble Ashin Jinarakkhita Maha Nayaka Sthavira (76-year-old monk pioneer of Buddhism in Indonesia) as Vice President of WBSC.
KASI as organization official buddhists it said in a letter numbered 455. 5 / 1204 that was signed plh director general social and political the department of the interior of the Republic of Indonesia, Drs H Ragam. The establishment of KASI hence now buddhists indonesia having an institution cleric who parallel to the institutions of the clergy in other religions where kepengurusannya up in the hands of the clergy as an assembly of the indonesian (MUI) of mohammedanism, a conference prelates indonesia (KWI) of catholics , fellowship of the churches of indonesia (PGI) of christianity.

Representative of Buddhist Indonesia (Perwakilan Umat Buddha Indonesia (new-Walubi)
Representative of Buddhists Indonesia formed on the basis of National Consensus Buddhists Indonesia on 20 August 1998, consists of the Confederation some Buddhist organizations fractions a few Buddhist organizations, as well as some Buddhist organizations that don't fit in KASI. It's organization was lead by Dra. Hartati Murdaya. This is a container of community organizations of Buddhists Indonesia which consists of assemblies of Buddhism, Buddhist, religious institutions, The Honor Council the Sangha and viable Container was breathing on Buddhism.
Buddhist Youth Organization
Encouragement to develop organization also found in groups of young people and women. The Buddhist Youth Indonesia (Pembudhi) who was born in the neighborhood MUABI (1973) and was active in the KNPI and Golkar after signing the Declaration of Indonesian Youth (1986) and prepare Youth Buddhist Congress. The Government ordered him to come with an intended element of youth assemblies, so that it gets done deliberation Walubi together in 1986 which gave birth to a younger generation of Buddhist Indonesia (Gemabudhi) with Chairman Lieus Sungkharisma.
Youth Organization growing among the assembly between others : Tridharma Youth (1954), The Joint Secretariat of the Indonesian Buddhayana Monasteries Youth (sekber Pmvbi - Buddhayana Youth) 1973 , Then The Young Generation Mahayana Buddhism Indonesia (1986), Theravada Indonesia Youth (patria ) 1995 , etc.
Buddhis Women Organization
Buddhist women Indonesia originally was a local Buddhist women's organizations in Bandung (1973), then along with women's groups from assemblies, held a Congress Woman Walubi Buddhist Indonesia in 1987 and gave birth to a large family of Buddhist Women Indonesia (KBWBI). Subsequent developments gave rise to various women's organizations based on Buddhist assemblies that exist in Indonesia as Women Theravada Indonesia (Wandani), Indonesia, and the Mahayana Women etc.
Buddhist Become Official State Religion
An ancient literature said that the buddhist religion in indonesia will asleep in four times and shall stand again after 500 years later since the collapse of the royal mahapahit on in 1478. it appear to be a reality. After passing the 4 (four) era, i e , the Kingdom of Islam , era of Colonization , the Independence, and the Old Order; and also after about 500 years since the collapse of the Royal Mahapahit in 1478, Buddhism started to rise again in the archipelago (indonesia). It is characterized by the presence of a presidential decree republic of Indonesia number 45, 1974 and decision president of the republic of indonesia Number. 30, 1978 who sets the establishment of the directorate general for guidance society Hinduism and Buddhism.
If counted, since since the collapse of the royal majapahit on in 1478 and the rising of Presidential Degree of Republic Indonesia Number 30 in 1978 , there is a time lapse more or less 500 years. And by the presidential decree, Buddhism became one of the official religions recognized by the State and is aligned with other religions. In 1983, the day of Vesak (Vesak) designated by the Government as a holiday of Justice (Buddhist Year 2499 BE) with the Decree the President of the REPUBLIC of INDONESIA No. 3/1983.
Buddhism in Indonesian National Identity
Indonesian state philosophy is Pancasila. The pancasila was formulated by Soekarno and deliverd as a speech without text before the committee to Investigate Preparatory Efforts for Independence on the June 1st,1945. The principle of Divinity, which is the most relevant to this study, was at that time described as follows.
“I have described four principles: (1) Indonesian Nationalism, (2) Internationalism and Humanity, (3) Consensus or Democracy, (4) Social Security. The fifth Principle should be: to build independent Indonesia which is devoted to the God who is one. The every Indonesian Should believe in his or her own god. A christian worships the god according to instructions of Jesus Christ, a moslem believes in God according to the instrucion of the prophet Muhammad s.a.w., a Buddhist performs religious to his scriptures”[13].
Still a question whether the existence of the circle of Buddhist teachings acknowledged the existence of the Godhead That the one true God, make the Government at that time feel free to make Buddhism as the official religion. Then, the most Venerable Ashin Jinarakkhita proposed the name Sanghyang Adi Buddha, Buddha trance dance as the name of God in the teachings of Buddhism. It is then submitted to the Minister of religious affairs and the Government finally accepted Buddhism as the official religion of the country in 1978. It is listed in the GBHN 1978, Presidential Decree Number 30, 1978, as well as Circulars Minister of Home Affairs No. 477/74054/1978 (18 November 1978)[14].
The workshop was held on February 20, 1978 in Jakarta produced documents of 'Workshop the stabilization of the teachings of Buddhism in Indonesian National Identity”. Workshop document contains the code of conduct, criteria of Buddhism in indonesia later confirmed as well as on the pledge along the Buddhist Congress in 1979. The decision regarding the admission of all sects of Buddhism in Indonesia against:
  1. 1.The belief of God (all sects respect different designations to refer to God, but in fact one and the same) – Monotheis.
  2. 2.Buddha Gotama as Prophet (Great Teacher).
  3. 3.Holding the Tripitaka Scriptures of the Pali Canon and are committed to carrying out/Guidelines and Implementing Pancasila elegant timepiece.
It also set out any criteria of Buddhism in Indonesia, namely the existence of: Almighty God, Triratna/Tiratana, Law Trilaksana/Tilakkhana, Satyani/Aryan Chess Cattari Ariya Saccani, Pratitya Samutpada/Karma/Paticcasamuppada, Kamma, Punnabhava, Punarbhava/Nirvana/Nibbana, and Bodhisattva/Bodhisatta.
Therefore, Buddhists at the time viewed the need to adjust to the new order Government which sets out the terms of the religion is to believe in God (theistik), the political conditions in the past very difficult for Buddhism to thrive if it does not apply to categories of the Godhead that the one true God and would be considered Atheists and will not be allowed to develop.
Peculiar characteristic of Indonesian Buddhism appearing in a couple of decades after the failed communist coup in 1965, Indonesian Buddhism has accepted Adi Buddha in order to comply with the Indonesian State principle of Dicinity which has been strongly enforced since 1965. the indonesian Buddhism called Buddhayana appears syncretistic as one can see it from its liturgical publication[15]. In this transformation, the first indigenous monk Ashin Jinarakkhita has played a significant role throughout. In the words of scholars who have since investigated further, the situation can be generally summarized in three suggestions.
One, the adoption of Adi Buddha[16] was due to Indonesian government framing of buddhism into monotheistic religions, especially Islam, exerted major influence. Two, the adoption was also perceived as forming theistic Buddhism and therefore causing conflicts among Indonesian Budddhist organizations to arise. Three, in the middle of all these, Ashin Jinarakkhita, The Buddhist Leader of the time was allegedly the one who created Adi Buddha[17] and Buddhayana. It is said that he had a particularly strong personality, was a great pragmatist and a shrewd judge of political developments, wore a theravada robe yet wore a beard in the Mahayana style. The latter eans the issue on hand cannot be examined just from the view or the action of the religious leader alone, but must also consider the state's view and governing acts as well as the history behind it.
In the archipelago, the discourse on divinity was neither totally new even for the fourtheenth century Java nor the end of it. The concept of divinity has been known to Indonesia for long time[18]. The one term of divinity Buddhism was called Sanghyang Adi Buddha is from the word “adi buddha”. The term Adi Buddha reffereing to the concept of absolute and abstract divinity was employed for the forst time in Sanghyang Kamahayanikan. This term also found in scribed in the Pagarruyung I (Bukit Gombak I) inscription dated to 13 April 1356. The inscription claims that a descendant of Amararyya dynasty, the Illustrious King Adityawarman, who has the banner of non-duality, who was exceedingly like Adi Buddha – embedded with virtues of loving kindness, compassion, joy, and tranquility- was a king beneficial to misfortunate living beings.
This concept refers to the similarity of the concept of God in other religions (Islam, Christianity, Hinduism) which is the majority religion in Indonesia and a prerequisite for any mention of Theistik Religion in Indonesia. Government recognition of the appellation of God in Buddhism appeared in Government Regulation No. 21 RI in 1975 about oath/promise of a civil servant who claimed “Demi Allah” for those who are Buddhists replaced “Demi Sanghyang Adi Buddha” (later confirmed by Indonesian Law No. 43, 1999). The God term by 'Sanghyang Adi Buddha' is a trance dance of Buddhists under the Guidance of MUABI (now MBI – Indonesian Buddhayana Council).
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