Monday, September 1, 2014

Buddhism in Indonesia, Past and Present by Ven. Ditthisampanno (2)

Srivijaya Empires

In the 7th century and 8th between India and China are interwoven relationships are crowded. Hungan is not solely in the areas of trade, but also in science and Buddhism. Between the years of 618 to 907 AD, China ruled by Tang, was in India in the 7th century reign of King Harçha were being tolerant of Buddhism. Then at the time that many travellers and Monks from China who make a pilgrimage to the Holy places of Buddhism in India.
In the mid-7th century this grew and developed into an important port on the banks of the waters of the straits of malacca, an important traffic vein between India and china. For several centuries, the kingdom was held the hegemony of the ocean. Srivijaya was arguably the center of trade and the centre of buddhism in southeast asia. Buddhism in srivijaya times was mahayana buddhism to understand sanskrit.
Between ad 850 until early abad 13, royal sriwijaya ruled by the family of syailendra dynasty who have ruled in mataram, central java. Between ad for 75 years in charge of mataram, the family syailendra many of erecting buildings lustral buddhist temple. Sriwijaya then expands your dominion to the Southern Thai now called Suratani and Pattani. The temples made by srivijaya there among other vihara mahadhatu in jaiya and vihara mahadhatu in nakorn si thamarat until now still exists and a building form, for statues - Buddhist statues and the Bodhisattva similar to that was found in java.
Attisa, a very popular Monk from Tibet that rebuilding Buddhism in the country has ever come to Sumatra and lived there from the year 1011-1023. He studied under the guidance of Dharmakirti, a leading Monks in an age of Srivijaya. based on a biography entry in writing Attisa in Tibet, Sumatra was the center of Buddhism, the main being Bhiksu Dharmakirti was a major scholar of that era. The arrival of the dharmaduta to Indonesia prompted a lot of people go on pilgrimage to India to visit the Holy places and Buddhist centers like Nalanda University and others. After returning to Indonesia they established temples of various shapes and sizes.
Srivijaya was expected to be centered around Palembang. Not much remains of the Temple found in Sumatra. There is a group of Muaro Jambi Temple (in Jambi), Muara Takus Temple (in Riau) and the Gunung Tua Temple, inclined to mahayana buddhism. In palembang ('Telaga Batu') many obtained rocks that reads ' siddhayatra ' meaning Holy trip that was successful, and on the Siguntang Hill found the great statues of buddha, the work of 6th century.
The earliest information about the existence of Buddhism in Java and Sumatra were obtained from a Chinese traveler named Fah-Hien, who upon his return from Ceylon to China in 414 was forced to land in the country named Ye-Po-Ti as his ship was damaged. Now is not very clear whether Ye-Po-Ti it Java or Sumatra. Some experts say that Ye-Po-Ti is a Java Island (Javadvipa). Fah-Hien mentioned in Buddhist Ye-Po-Ti, although only slightly. However, after the fifth century it is unlikely that things are changing. It was not until three hundred years later, at the end of the seventh century, Chinese Buddhist monk I-tsing records with complete Buddhism and its application in India and Malay. Its main attraction is the ' home of Buddhism ' North India where I-tsing resided and attended there for more than ten years. From his notes can be said that Buddhism in India and Sumatra have much in common, where I-tsing also found the distinction between Buddhism in China and in India.
I-tsing spent time living alone as a Buddhist monk in India and Sumatra. The whole book is a complete record of the life of the monks. He lives in India is entirely based on the rules of the vinaya. Compared notes Fah-Hien in 414 with notes of I-tsing, can be drawn the conclusion that the Buddhist in Java and Sumatra had been built very quickly. The work of I-tsing also write notes as expressed above, he also wrote a book about the journey of a famous religious teachers who went to the land to the West (Srivijaya?). She says in his note, the life of a monk who in essence are almost the same as in India. In his book it is said that the original Java and Sumatra Monks is a very good sanskrit scholars. One of saatunya is Jnanabhadra which is the Original Java people who live in Sumatra and acted as tutor to China and help translate Buddhist sutras into Chinese. The language used by Buddhist monks is the language of sanskrit. Pali is not used. However this should not be made a rule of thumb that Buddhism that developed here is Mahayana.
I-tsing explains in his book, embraced Buddhism throughout this country and most of the system adopted is Hīnayāna, except where there is little in the Malay who adopted Mahayana Buddhism, widely known to the public that speak sanskrit Buddhist literature not always mean the Mahayana.
This is a form of Buddhism that reach the Islands in the South seas. I-tsing says at the Islands in the South seas, Mulasarvastivadanikayo almost universally in the adaptation. I-tsing doesn't seem to make the difference between the adherents of the Hinayana and Mahayana. He said: those who worship the Bodhisatta and reading mahayana sutras are known adherents of Mahayana Buddhism. While not referred to adherents of the Hinayana. Both of these systems in accordance with the teachings of Dhamma. Can we tell which is right? Both teach virtue and guide us to Nirvana. The two leads to the destruction of lust and salvation of all sentient life. We should not care about these differences. create doubts in fact will create confusion.
From his works can be said that I-tsing is not too in Buddhist philosophy in matters of cope but only interested in the life of the monks and the tasks that the election was by them. In other words, he gave all his time to learning and the life of the monks rules (vinaya). As mentioned above , in sumatra and java more growing hinayana buddhism. I tsing telling that in the malay, middle east coast of sumatra others who adheres to mahayana buddhism. From other sources explained that before the arrival of I tsing, have come from india dharmapala monk, to the malays and spread the flow of mahayana buddhism. the early 20th century, two stele found near palembang south sumatera inclined to mahayana buddhism. Stele other made in 775, found in viengsa, the malay peninsula adduce that one of the King of Sriwijaya - that not only rule in south sumatra but also around the south of the malay peninsula - ordered the construction of three effigies. the third effigies offered to buddha, vajrapani bodhisatwa, and avalokitesvara. and other place found plate gold which said some Dhyani Buddha's name; which of course is the flow of mahayana buddhism.
From the news I-tsing's next we can take the conclusion that at that time Srivijaya became a centre of Buddhism. There is a college that didn't lose by Buddhist College in Nalanda India. There are more than 1000 Buddhist monks who are teaching as well as the ceremony is similar to that existing in India. Except for the followers of the Hinayana, Mahayana, there is a follower of Srivijaya. There is even a teacher teaching in Mahayana. From this news is clearly that of Srivijaya was central to Mahayana Buddhism, which is open to new ideas and are also happy to hold a scientific work. Therefore the Chinese traveller who wants to study in India must stop over in South Sumatera, to make preparations. It is also done by I-tsing.
Presumably then Mahayana is a growing and influential. This is evident from the inscriptions collected around Palembang that mention that the daputa hyang-perhaps the Prime Minister-trying to find the blessings and supernatural powers in order to establish the Kingdom of Srivijaya, so that all beings are able to enjoy it. From the expressions to be used, can be drawn the conclusion that this ceremony is an ancient ceremony of indonesia in accordance with the teachings of the Mahayana. From other news stories, it is clear that Mahayanalah is the boss at the time. Not even just that alone, perhaps the influence of tantra, which in India is affecting Buddhism since the middle of the seventh century, is also found in South Sumatera. It is obtained from the explanation that one of the highest level to get the wisdom is vajrasarira, body armor (diamonds) are reminded to teaching wajrayana. All this shows that at the beginning still exist close links between Indonesia and India. This relationship seemed are more and more substractive.
Kingdoms in East Java
In East Java, presumably to Buddhism and religious Shiva coexist. It appears from inscriptions where mPu Sindok referred to with the title Sri Isana (Shiva) while his daughter was married to Brihaspati is also called Sugatapaksa (Buddhist). Also discovered the influence of tantra on both of these religions are strong enough. From existing literature, the literature was obtained that terkuno compiled in such a way, to consist of verses in Sanskrit language, followed by a description of the encyclopedia in old Javanese. From here it looks that the passages were derived from India. In the next development was the book consists of verses in old Javanese and interspersed stanza from the Sanskrit language. This shows the relationship with India already loose. Finally there is the book which is entirely made up of old Javanese, only sometimes contained interludes in the Sanskrit language. At the time of these two books outlining the Mahayana, namely ' Mantrayana ' which Kamahayan trance dance contains the teachings of the Buddhist monks who were being ordained, and ' Sanghyang Kamahayanikan ' which contains a collection of teaching how one can achieve kele pasan. Principal teachings in Sanghyang Kamahayanikan is indicates that the form of various kinds of release form is essentially the same. For authors is not too difficult Sanghyang Kamahayanikan to identify Shiva with Buddha and call it ' Shiva-Buddha ', not to mention Shiva or Buddha, but Shiva-Buddha as one God.
Coexistence of the acculturation of culture resulted in blurring the original form and expression of Buddhism. In Kingdoms era, can be inferred that this era is the era where the Syncretism has already reached its peak. Presumably the flow of Shiva, Vishnu and Buddha can live together. All three are seen as a form of an assortment of the same truth. Shiva and Vishnu are considered equal in value and they are described as the statue of 'Harihara' half Shiva and half Vishnu. Shiva and Buddha are seen together. For example, King Vishnuvardhana (from Singasari) who died in 1268 was worshipped as a Shiva in Waleri temple and Amoghapaça Buddha on Jago Temple. Kertanegara glorified as Shiva and Buddha in the Jawi temple and his wife as Jina and Locana in Sagala as well as Bhairawa in Singosari Temple.
In the days, Shiva or Buddha is one of the aspects of a single religion, which is Java (so as not to compete). In the book of the Arjunawijaya for example is told that when the Arjunawijaya entered a Buddhist temple, the monk explained that the Jina of the corners of nature depicted on the sculptures it is tantamount to the incarnation of Shiva. Vairocana is equal to Sadasiwa who occupied the central place. Aksobya equal to Rudra, who occupied the East. Ratna sambhawa together with Brahma which occupied South, Amitabha is similar to the West and Mahadeva occupies the same Amogasiddhi with Vishnu to occupy the North. Therefore the monk says there is no difference between Buddhism with Shiva. In the book of 'Kunjarakarna' mentioned that no one, either followers of Shiva and Buddha could have let slip if she separates the real one, namely Shiva-Buddha.
We had the impression that at the time of Buddhism more evolved from Shiva. This is seen from the book of Sutasoma (compared by Mpu Tantular), States that the Buddha was none other than the Brahma-Vishnu-Isvara, the Hindu Trimurti. In fact, Shiva and Buddha is One (Siwa Buddha bhinneka tunggal ika tan hana dharma mangrwa). This book telling about anger Kalarudra who was about to kill Sutasoma, an avatar of the Buddha. The gods tried to defuse the Kalarudra by reminding that actually Buddha and Shiva indistinguishable. Jinatwa (substance of Buddha) is the same as Siwatattwa (substance of Shiva). Furthermore it is recommended that people pondering the Shiva-Buddha-Shiva tattwa, substance-Buddha.
This seems too the story of Bubuksah is also depicted in the Panataran Temple. Two older brothers named Gagang Aking (followers of Shiva) and Bubuksah (followers of Buddha), since young life as a hermit on Mount Wilis. Bubuksah eat everything edible while the butt of Aking take vegetables only. They argue about two Hermitage. Then God sent the Scorpion to master in the form of white tiger Wijaya to test both the boy. When White Tiger comes to the hilt Aking, he adviced so just go his brother because his body is fat. When the Tiger comes in Bubuksah, he deliberately handle him for the course, so that he might escape from this mortal world. From here it is clear that Bubuksah was a follower of the Buddhist scriptures he is not even in the hard ascetic practice. He got a place in heaven. This story reveals a polemic, which indicates the primacy of Buddhism. However the story is depicted in Panataran Temple. from this increasingly clear that the elements indonesia native the fore which was expounded in the form of hinduism and buddhism.
At the time of Majapahit (1293-1429) who have the spirit of the Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, Shiva does not mingle in the whole Buddhist system, so that more precise is called pararelism or coalition. In the book of nagarakertagama mentioned that both remain separate, different teachings, different priest and worship, even the built area is also regulated. Reverend devotees Sugata (Buddha) stepped on the land west of the island of Java because its inhabitants are not adherents of the teachings of the buddha. There is an official who manages of Buddhism (Kasogatan) and religion (Kasiwan). Gajah Mada's (the Prime Minister) is Buddhists and the King embraced the Religion of Shiva.
Formally, buddhism in nusantara perish together with the fall of the kingdom of majapahit (1429) because the civil war and the appearance of the kingdom of Islam. In the islamic rule not recorded the presence of life folk buddhist religious. but does that still persist, at least in the attitude life behavior, trust, inwardness, a penchant samadhi and ascetic, known as kejawen.
Buddhist Literature in Indonesia
Based on a legacies of the golden age of Buddhism during of the kingdoms era, both in Java and Sumatra, can we conclude that at such times, the development of Buddhism was rapidly once. Especially when we conducted the study of Borobudur, which we admit is one of the wonders of the world that can still be seen on this earth. At such times, Buddhist literatures has grown very rapidly. A lot of literature is the work of the Buddhist scholar in his era, i.e: Sanghyang Kamahayanikan, Sutasoma and Kunjarakarna.
Buddhist Developments In The Present
“The Mount Merapi will excite the lava be five hundred years from now Buddhist teachings will return to the Archipelago”, then General disappeared from the front of his enemies, after choosing to retain what he believes, with only leaving a few lines of a prediction ...
In 1429, the Majapahit Kingdom came to an end. Then join the collapse also pillars of Buddhism in the archipelago. The people who are loyal to embrace the religion of Shiva-Buddha fled and assembled at various places in East Java and Bali.
One hundred fifty years an intermittent, the indonesian nation colonized by netherlands. had come together the house of colonist, missionaires that spread the christian. In addition, there s also dutch scholar who came , for the purposes of examines history and culture is a nation that was colonized. The netherlands studies all of that , certainly with the purpose to perpetuates mastery his people over a nation that Colonized.
The teaching of spiritualism which is prominent among all these the dutch people who had come to indonesia is what known as the association of theosophy . the teaching of theosophy put pressure on the aspect of a fraternity between humans, without distinguish race, nation, or religious. So that there is also the indonesia educated who came to being a member of the Theosophical Society. The Theosophical Society formed a branch in Indonesia in 1883, when the arrival of H. P. Blavatsky (one of the leaders and founders of the Theosophical Society). The buddha's much-talked in Theosophical meeting and reintroduced meetings through lectures and meditation guidance given at the Theosophical branches in Jakarta, Medan, Bandung, Yogyakarta, Surabaya, and others.
Traditionally, Chinese tradition in Indonesia is mix of Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism. The Buddhst teaching is the Northern Buddhist tradition or generally known as the Mahayana. The presence of Mahayana Buddhism in most of the city can be traced to the growth of “kelenteng”[6] (chinese temples). For example, the Shrine Jin de Yuan (now Dharma Bhakti Monastery) which was founded in 1650, and not less 18 monks lived there in the 18th century. In 1901, Most Ven. Pen Ching (Ben Lau Qing He Shang), which became known as Aryamula, arrived in Indonesia and providing religious services in the temples in a number of cities, including Bandung, Cirebon, Karawang, and Semarang. He also founded the Vihara Khong Hua Si in Jakarta. The Monks were merely providing rituals services. Rarely reveals the Buddhist teachings in detail.
Buddhism among bumiputeras (local) themselves at that time only a sporadic live domestic tradition. The newspaper 'Sin Tit Po', published on 27 March 1935 announces that in Kampong Petenon, Surabaya, there are 1,500 Buddhists, there is also a group of residents who profess religion buddha but no longer knew the teachings of the Buddha. Some are making Buddhism as a part of Hinduism who embraced the concept of Shiva-Buddha, the Buddha as an Avatar and contempt of Vishnu.
These three groups of people (chinese, Theosophy, Bumiputra) above the root of the birth of institutional Buddhism in Indonesia. In 1929, in jakarta have formed an organization named Buddhist Association for the Propagation of Buddhism in Java which is then converted into Java Buddhists Association, led by Ernest Erle Power (Chairman) and Josiast v. Dienst (Secretary). This organization is part of The Buddhists International Mission centred on Thaton, Myanmar. Java Buddhists Association oriented Theravada Buddhism, and print media named namo buddhaya with Dutch-speaking. The arrival of Josias Priest revealing many community leaders who pay attention to Buddhism. In the temple, while he was discussing with monks, many figures who come to listen to temple. Talks between the descendants of the Netherlands upasaka with the figures temple revolves around the teachings of Buddhism and its development in Java.
In the 1920s appears one character named Tek Hoay Kwee, a merchant, a keen writer and also a humanists. He also published the first magazine in Indonesia contains the teachings of Buddhism, with the name Moestika Dharma. The services Tech Hoay Kwee, established dialogue between Josiast V. Dients and Ven. Lin Feng Fei, Abbot of the Kwan Im Tong Temple, in Prinsenlaan (mangga besar), Jakarta. Dialogue that resulted in an agreement that the temples as places of worship of Buddhists is not only used as a place of worship, but also as a place to get a lesson in Buddhism. As a follow up to the deal, Ven. Lin Feng Fei allow Josiast give lectures on Buddhism in the Kwan Im Tong Temple. Then Kongkoan (Chineesche Raad), a Councils that is organizing the temples in Jakarta, allow all Josiast gave a talk at the temples around Jakarta.
On March 4th, 1934, Ven. Narada Thera, a Buddhist Missionaris (dhammaduta) of Sri Lanka, came to Indonesia for the first time in the visit to Southeast Asia, at the invitation of Ong Soe An (a prominent Theosophical from Bandung). During his time in the island of Java, Ven. Narada Thera visited Batavia, Buitenzorg (Bogor), Bandung, Yogyakarta and Solo. In a five-city Ven. Narada Thera gave lectures about the teachings of Buddhism. The coming of the monk Narada by activists of the Theosophical utilized to broaden insights into Buddhist teachings. When they visit Borobudur Temple, in Magelang, on 10 March 1934, the Ven. Narada Thera blessed Bodhi Tree planting undertaken by the leaders of the Theosophical Yogya, Mr. E. E. Power. After from Borobudur, in the evening, Ven. Narada Thera ordain some upasaka in Yogya. Among them there is a Javanese named Mangunkawatja.
In that year also formed Java Buddhists Association Afdeeling Batavia (Jakarta) by J.W. de Witt as a Chairman and his Secretary Dr. R. Ng. Poerbatjaraka. Beside that is formed is also Java Buddhists Association Afdeeling Buitenzorg (Bogor) under the leadership of A. Van der Velde (Chairman) and Oeij Oen Ho (Secretary). Shortly thereafter, on May 10, 1934, Java Buddhists Association Afdeeling Batavia escape from the Center of Java Buddhists Association and stands on its own under the name Batavia Budhists Association led by Tek Hoay Kwee (Chairman) and Ny. Tjoa Hin Hoey (Secretary). In the magazine Moestika Dharma, Tek Hoay Kwee explains that this separation is not a solution but to be able to move more freely. Batavia is the skew spread Buddhists inaugurated Association Mahayana, differs from Java Buddhist Association that spreading of the Theravada Buddhism. it also in 1934 formed a a central organization named Central Buddhistische Institute Voor Java with Magazine in the dutch called De Dharma In Nederlandsche Indie.
In 1935 Sam Kauw Hwee has established by Kwee Tek Hoay, i.e. local organizations whose members consisted of Buddhists, Confucianism and Taoism, with print media named Sam Kauw Goat Poo which Indonesian Language. This Organization's goal is essentially to prevent the Chinese people and Chinese ancestry to be adherents of other religions. During the occupation of Japan, all activities of the Buddhist organization stalled. Then in 1952, all Sam Kauw Hwee was activited back to combine themselves into a Association of Sam Kauw Hwee Indonesia (Gabungan Sam Kauw Hwee Indonesia - GSKI).
Revival of Buddhism after The Independence of Indonesia
The revival of Buddhism and its practice as a distinct religion in the Indonesian archipelago characterized by the solemnization of a waisak in borobudur temple for the first time 1953 attended by 3000 a participant, followed by the ambassador, and becomes headlines news in a newspaper. It was largely initiated by one man named The Boan An. A local Chinese he studied physics at Groningen in the Netherlands, but in 1953 he ordained as a novice in the Mahayana (c'han) tradition in Khong Hua Si Temple in Jakarta named Ti Cheng. His preceptor recommended that he further his studies in Myanmar and thus in the same year, he entered the famous Sasana Yeiktha in Yangon, to practise satipatthana meditation under Mahasi Sayadaw. In the following year he was ordained as the bhikkhu Ashin Jinarakkhita, the first Indonesian bhikkhu in 500 years. In 1955 he returned to Java and energetically worked for the reestablishment of Buddhist temples and monasteries. Largely as a result of his work, Buddhist organizations were formed in many parts of the country. With the background following the exercise in two tradition (theravada and mahayana), Buddhists built does not care about the difference of the sect. Although Most. Ven. Ashin Jinarakkhita teaches more people read the paritta in the Pali tradition, chanting in sanskrta and chinese also introduced.
On Asalha 2499 or July 4th, 1955, Ven. Ashin jinarakkhita founded the Fellowship of Layman and Laywomen Indonesia (Persaudaraan Upasaka-Upasika Indonesia - PUUI) in Vihara Buddha Gaya, Watu Gong, Semarang. PUUI are the crucible or agency for the monk helpmate, chaired by most upasaka Madhyantika. S. Mangunkawatja. These institutions duty to help propogates buddhism, because the monks that time had a little less .
In 1956 is the Buddhist world commemorates Buddha Jayanti, 2500 years since the Buddha passing away (Mahaparinibbana). In Indonesia commemorates Buddha Jayanti are marked with the spirit of revival of Buddhism was ever buried under the ruins of the Majapahit Empire, which was carried out with a warning of Vesak in Borobudur Temple.
Various Buddhist organizations which is the civic and social organizations as well as doing the development of Buddhist qualities of Buddhists. Among they are:
1.Indonesian Tridharma Combine (Gabungan Tridharma Indonesia - GTI)
Gabungan Tridharma Indonesia is a joint merging of some Sam Kauw Hwee (Chinese Temple). Sam Kaw Hwee Indonesian Assembly joined with Thian Lie Hwee, led by Ong Tiang Biaw (which later became Ven. Jinaputta) and combined Khong Kauw Hwee Indonesia (GAPAKSI). The Worship of Sin Ming Hui (Social Community of Candranaya) and Buddha Tengger, forming Combined Sam Kauw Indonesia (GSKI) under Leadership of The Boan An as Chairman in 1953. After The Boan An was ordained became Monk in 1954 in Burma with the name Ashin Jinarakkhita. Chairman of GSKI switched to Drs. Khoe Soe Khiam (Drs. Sasana Surya). In 1962, renamed as Gabungan Tri Dharma Indonesia (GTI).
2.Indonesian Buddhist Association (Perhimpunan Buddhis Indonesia – PERBUDHI)
Some Buddhists of the Javanese, including Sosro Utomo (Buddhist Tengger), see that hard for people to remain merged with GTI. Therefore, for the growth of a new organization which recommended form lets people join Java. 1957 formed the Buddhist Union of Indonesia (PERBUDHI) with the Chairman of the first Sosro Utomo. In its first Congress in 1958 it was renamed the Buddhist Association of Indonesia (PERBUDHI) with the Chairman Mr. Sariputra Sadono, and then successively as Chairman was Col. Soemantri M.S. and Gen. Brigadir. A.A. Suraji Kertawijaya. Upper effort of Ven. Jinarakkhita, Perbuddhi venture quickly grew and spread outward Java Island. In Perbudhi there is a group that is Upasaka and Upasika elite group in Perbudhi. This must be a member of the Group perbudhi and bound in brotherhood called Fellowship of Indonesian Layman and Laywomen (PUUI) which was formed in 1956 by the monk Jinarakkhita and is supporting the Sangha and responsible to the Sangha Suci Indonesia led by Ashin Jinarakkhita.
3.The Deliberations of All Indonesian Buddhists (Musyawarah Umat Buddha Seluruh Indonesia (MUBSI)
The Deliberations of All Indonesian Buddhists (Musyawarah Umat Buddha Seluruh Indonesia (MUBSI) was formed in 1962 by those who refused to PUUI in the Perbuddhi led by Drs. Suharto Djojosumpeno from Yogya, who last served as the staff at Lemhanas. They argued that the Organization could not be Perbudhi wheel goes well because PUUI is not subject to the decision of the Congress, but to the Sangha.
4.Buddhis Indonesia
In 1965 Perbudhi Semarang branch to break away from Perbudhi and formed the Buddhis Indonesia in Vihara Tanah Putih, Semarang. Buddhist Indonesia had the support of the various branches of Perbudhi in Central Java and East Java and declared themselves to be branch of Buddhist Indonesia. This is the initial split of serasian and personal problems between the characters Busshid in Semarang, Central Java and the central character of Buddhists, but as an excuse to get out of Perbudhi because Perbudhi participate in the Conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists (WFB) in Bangkok in attendance are representatives from Malaysia. At the time Indonesia was being argued with Malaysia.
5.Indonesian Buddhist Federation (Federasi Umat Buddha Indonesia)
In July 1965, held a meeting between Buddhist organizations that exist to create a foundation of unity and cooperation. The meeting was resumed again in August and October 1966. At their meeting in February 1967 successfully formed the Federation of Buddhist Indonesia whose members are: Buddhis Indonesia, Gabungan Tridharma Indonesia, Musyawarah Umat Buddha Seluruh Indonesia, Agama Hindu-Buddha Tengger, and Agama Buddha Wisnu Indonesia
Perbudhi does not want to join the Federation of Buddhist Indonesia because among members of the Federation of Buddhists this is Indonesia has issued a joint statement which harms the Holy Perbudhi Sangha and Indonesia. In the Maha Samaya II (PUUI Congress) held 16-18 March 1969 in Bandung, attended also by the Perbudhi and the Maha Sangha Indonesia, formed the highest Assembly of the entire Buddhist Indonesia that function sets the wisdom in religious and responsible to the Maha Sangha Indonesia. Chairman of the House is Ven. Girirakkhito (Chairman) and Gen. Suraji Aryakertawijaya (General Secretary).
To prevent a split that is not widespread, on the initiative of General Saparjo, conducted a meeting to hold deliberations. After several meetings, on 26 May 1972 made the pledge in the temple to form a single container Buddhists Indonesia. The pledge signed by: 1. Suryaputta Ks Suratin (Buddhist Indonesia) 2. Bgen Sumantri MS (MUABI) 3. Brigjen Suraji AriyaKertawijaya (Perbudhi) 4. Djoeri (MUSBI) 5. Drs. Sasana Surya (GTI) 6. Soepangat Prawirokoesoemo SH (Salatiga Buddhist Brotherhood). A single container that is melting all Buddhist organizations and named Buddha Dharma Indonesia abbreviated BUDHI. Beside that also formed The Buddha Dharma Indonesia whose members consist of the leaders of Buddhism and Buddhist scholar from different sects. This function sets the Assembly of religious wisdom.
So much harmony, unity and unity still has yet to be realized, while the conflict between the organization increasingly, on the basis that the Hindu-Buddhist Customs Bimas conducted a meeting led by Buddhist organizations and the Buddhist leaders in 1976 in Jakarta. In the meeting it was realised that the Buddhist organizations have two forms of activities, namely: the social aspect of civic and religious aspects of life coaching are performed by the chaplain of the sect in question. Under these circumstances sukarlah to form a single container for Buddhists because each sect have traditions and religious ceremonies are different to each other. Therefore these two aspects of the Buddhist organization activities are separated and each is compiled in a single Institution.
Social aspects in a single container civic compiled non sektarial called the combined Buddhist Whole Indonesia (GUBSI) under the leadership of r. Eko Pratomo Bogdan Michka SH (Chairman) and Drs. Aggi Tjetje (General Secretary). Spiritual aspect of being a Religious Assembly representing Buddhist sect in existence. The field grew to be The spiritual Priest BUDHI Buddha Dharma Indonesia (MAPANBUDHI) (October 3, 1976) is now an Assembly of Buddhism Theravada Indonesia-Magabudhi. Of the group, named the Assembly Chaplain Tridharma Tridharma se Indonesia - Martrisia (December 17, 1977). in conjunction with the inception of the Sangha of Mahayana Buddhism Indonesia appear Assembly Mahayana Indonesia - Majabhumi (August 1978). Organization of Nichiren Syosyu Indonesia (October 28th, 1964) became Nichiren Syosyu Buddhist Assembly of Indonesia (NSI).
Then in the next meeting, set up Assembly of Buddhism in the form of the Federation of Indonesia MABI. MUABI then resigned from MABI. It became an Institution MUABI Dharmaduta Kasogatan Indonesia which eventually became the Tribunal Dharmaduta Kasogatan Tantrayana Indonesia, a leading by alm Sumarsono Giriputta and then Drs. Oka Diputhera. MUABI (after Indonesian Buddhists) has been renamed The Indonesian Buddhayana Council (MBI).

Development of the Sangha in Indonesia
1.Sangha Agung Indonesia
Indonesia takes a lot of Monks. According to vinaya or regulation of the Sangha, Vinaya or regulation, namely the upasampada or ordination of bhikkhu can be done in terms of the most poorly attended by 5 senior biku. In 1959 Y.M. Bhikkhu Ashin Jinarakkhita Invited 13 bhikkhu from abroad, namely:
  1. 1.Y.M. Mahasi Sayadaw dari Birma.
  2. 2.Y.M. Somdach Choun Nath Mahathera dari Kamboja.
  3. 3.Y.M. Ung Mean Chanavanno Mahathera dari Kamboja.
  4. 4.Y.M. Piyadasi Mahathera dari Sri Lanka.
  5. 5.Y.M. Narada Mahathera dari Sri Lanka.
  6. 6.Y.M. Tudawe Arivawangsa Nayaka Thera dari Sri Lanka.
  7. 7.Y.M. Walane Satthisara Mahathera dari Sri Lanka.
  8. 8.Y.M. Kamburugamuwe Mahanama Mahathera dari Sri Lanka
  9. 9.Y.M. Ransegoda Sarapala Thera dari Sri Lanka.
  10. 10.Y.M. Phra Visal Samanagun dari Thailand.
  11. 11.Y.M. Phra Sumreng Arnuntho Thera dari Thailand.
  12. 12.Y.M. Phra Kru Champirat Threra dari Thailand.
  13. 13.Y.M. Phra Kaveevorayan dari Thailand.
The invitation in order to form the Sangha Indonesia, through Sacred ordination of monks Indonesia 3 candidates. Then the Ven. Ashin Jinarakkhita also sent a wanna-be monk/nun ordination in Indonesia for other overseas.
When it ordained is Ong Tiang Biauw is named Jinaputta[7]. There on 17 May 1959 Ong ordained samanera and next 5 days later ordained bhikkhu at Watugong, Central Java. At the same time was also Ktut Tangkas from Singaraja and Ki Sontomihardjo from Banyumas became a samanera. The years of the next candidates biku and biksuni sent to ordained abroad.
In 1959 by Bhikkhu Jinarakkhita established Sangha Indonesia consisting of monks and being ordained samanera, which according to the Theravada. Later changed to Sangha Suci Indonesia Indonesia in 1968 changed again become Maha Sangha Indonesia which consists of the monks of Theravada and Mahayana.
Bandung, 1969. For the benefit of the development of the Buddha Dharma in the land of water, at the invitation of Ashin Jinarakkhita Mahathera of the Maha Sangha Indonesia, in the Entourage of monks from Thailand. Headed by Most Ven. Chao Kun Sasana Sobhana, abbot of the Wat Bovoranives, Chao Kun Dhamma, Chairman of the Maha Sangha Indonesia Monk Ashin Jinarakkkhita, Bhikkhu Khantipalo from United Kingdom (A few years later the Most Ven. Chao Kun Sasana Sobhana who became Spiritual Teacher of the King of Thailand, was appointed Sangharaja (Supreme Patriach) Of Thailand). With the help of the ambassadors of the Dharma (dhammaduta) Thailand, in 1970 at the celebrations of Vesak in Borobudur held ordination Monks. Venerable Ashin Jinarakkhita gave up his murinya who still takes its roots in traditional samanera Dhammayuttika Monasteries of Wat Bovoranives Bangkok Most Ven. Chao Kun Sasana Sobhana (now Sangharaja (supreme patriach) of Thailand). 5 people that ordain is: Ven. Aggajinamitto, Ven. Uggadhammo, Ven. Jinadhammo, Ven. Sirivijayo (disrobe), Ven. Saccamano (disrobe). Because the Most. Ven. Chao Kun Sasana Sobhana must go back to Bangkok, coaching young biku-biku submitted on Bhante Vidhurdhammabhorn (bhante Vin) which then often are in Indonesia.
Divisions and disputes among the Buddhists to 1969 are generally based on a personal dispute. The split among the monks in the Maha Sangha Indonesia characterized by the existence of differences in the understanding of the Vinaya and Dharma. Some Theravada monk willed the monk did not intervene on this split and stands alone as a role model. Because of this attempt is not successful, then the monk went out of the Maha Sangha Indonesia and formed a Sangha Indonesia on January 12, 1972. Sangha Indonesia got support from organizations who gathered in the Federation of Indonesia Buddhists and from another organization such as Perbudhi and Buddhist Fellowship Salatiga[8].
On January 14, 1974, on the initiative of the Hindu-Buddhist Societies Guides Customs, held a meeting between Sangha Indonesia dan Maha Sangha Indonesia. At the meeting, agreed to fused Sangha Indonesia dan Maha Sangha Indonesia become Sangha Agung Indonesia and each monk will carry out the Vinaya under each sect. Elected as Chairman Most Ven. Jinarakkhita and his Deputy is Bhikkhu Jinapiya Thera. However, a subsequent meeting to define among others the structure and functions of the Organization of the Sangha Agung Indonesia never be implemented. The consensus made on January 14, that cannot be realized.
The Organization of Sangha Agung Indonesia at the present still exist with the member of monks and nun from three traditions that is theravada, mahayana, and tantrayana. Their member about 150 members all around if Indonesia.
2.Sangha Theravada Indonesia
Sangha Theravada Indonesia was form In 1976, separate from Sangha Agung Indonesia. In the afternoon on October 23, 1976, housed in the Maha Vihara Dhammaloka (now Vihara Tanah Putih), Semarang, initiated by some Buddhist monks and devotees namely: Ven. Aggabalo, Ven. Khemasarano, Ven. Sudhammo, Ven. Khemiyo, and Ven Nanavutto; Mr. Suratin MS., Mr. Mochtar Rashid, and Mrs. Supangat, to the agreement to form Sangha Theravada Indonesia [9].
3.Sangha Mahayana Indonesia
Similarly in 1978 with a few Mahayanis monks in the Sangha Agung Indonesia resigns and then formed a Sangha Mahayana Indonesia, Then, to unite the Mahayana monks and bhiksuni in one container, they founded the Sangha unity Mahayana Indonesia on September 10, 1978 in Buddha Murni Temple, Medan, North Sumatra[10].
In Indonesia there are thus three Sangha (Order): Sangha Agung Indonesia, Sangha Theravada Indonesia and Sangha Mahayana Indonesia.

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