Monday, September 1, 2014

Buddhism in Indonesia, Past and Present by Ven. Ditthisampanno (1)

Buddhism is a religion which has since long been embraced by most of society archipelago. Srivijaya and Majapahit era was the golden era for Buddhism. The existence of Buddhism in Nusantara (Indonesia) can be proven by the existence of a legacy-legacy in the form of inscriptions and buildings of the temple as well as foreign literature, particularly literature-originating from China.
The history of the development of Buddhism in Indonesia can be found from various sources that refer to a legacies of the past. holdover past consists of inscriptions that were found and foreign news, i.e. from the people's Republic of China who visited Indonesia. Inscriptions dating from the fifth to seventh centuries do not give too much information. The inscription comes from Borneo, Sumatra and Java. From the inscription we know that at that time there were Kings name smells of India, like Mulawarman in Kutai and Purnawarman in West Java. However, it does not mean that the King was coming from India. The most likely is that Kings were Indonesia native embraced religion that came from India.
Many people suspect that the early introduction of Buddhism to Indonesia is on the arrival of Aji Saka to Java in the early centuries of the Union. These allegations were derived from etymologically to Aji Saka itself, as well as matters related to it. The word 'Aji' of Kawi Language may refer to the science that has to do with the Scriptures, while the 'Saka' is interpreted as the Sakya who experience the transformation. Thus many words Aji Saka is interpreted as the title of King Tritustha of experts about the Sakya, in this case an expert about Buddhist Dhamma, also considered to be the person responsible for the creation of Java script. If this is true, that have dates Saka expressed as \ ' Nir Wuk Tanpa Jalu' (Nir meaning empty (0), Wuk means not so (0), tanpa (without) mean 0 and Jalu equals 1) which at one time intended to capture the first landing of he in Jepara, Northern Central – Java[3].
Source of our knowledge of Buddhism was taken from an inscription was found and from foreign news stories of China, who visited Indonesia. Inscriptions dating from the fifth to seventh centuries do not give too much information. The inscription comes from Borneo, Sumatra and Java. From the inscription we know that at that time there were Kings that have names that smelled like in India, Mulawarman in Kutai (Borneo) and Purnawarman in Tarumanagara (West Java). But it does not mean that the King was coming from India. The most likely is that Kings is the original that already entered Indonesia religion that came from India. Furthermore these inscriptions suggest that the religion is embraced Hinduism. but from the discovery of the statues of the Buddha, it can be inferred that Buddhism also existed, even though the number is still a little bit.
Based on research conducted a number of experts in Indonesia's history, up to now still there are many different opinions on when masiknya Buddhism in Indonesia. But one thing that can be recorded in history, based on the Fa Hien travelogue, a Buddhist missionaries from China, around the year 414 AD, there have been Buddhists on the island of Java, though still in an amount not much. Then, based on historical records, the Bhikshu Gunawarman, in 421 AD, came to Java and translated scriptures form mulasarvastivada sect, also taught Buddhism[4]. began developing in Java. Whereas the development of Buddhism in Indonesia is recorded on the record of travel I-Tsing, a bhikshu from China are on the way back to China and lived some time in transit to the Sriwijaya in Palembang in Southern Sumatra Island (685-695 AD). Bhikshu Hui Neng in the 664 lives for three years in kalingga (Holing) translating various Hinayana buddhism with the help of Javanese monk, Jnanabhadra. One among others, which they translated was Mahaparinibbana Sutta. According to I tsing, Hui-neng was just one of among 56 chinese monks who made a pligrimage to india during that period.
Indonesia especially in Java was not isolated at all from o ther advanced buddhist development centers in India, Srilanka, and China, before, during, and probably after Borobudur construction period. There were probably more two way communications going on among those countries at this early period than what the history might know about.
The arrival of monks from different countries to java and also the existence of some highly regarded buddhist Scriptures, e.g., Mahavairocana, Vajrasekhara, and Gandavyuha Sutra, known or sculpted in Borobudur, should explain Java's own legacy of Buddhism and therefore the existence of Borobudur. On the other hand, the existence of borobudur also demonstrates the early evidence of international constructive relationships and fruitful cooperation.
Development of Buddhism in Kingdoms Era
Medang (Early Mataram)
Buddhism was originally developed in Java and Sumatra were originally developed by Theravada Monks Gunawarman. Slow-flow is gradually pressed by other branches coming into Indonesia after they have a strong position in India.
Compared to previous days, the source of Buddhism in Central Java a bit more. On these days in Central Java have been two major Dynasty: the Kingdom of Syailendra dynasty who embraced Buddhism and Sanjaya dynasty embraced the religion of Shiva. Presumably this good relationship both kingdoms once, for news that there is a mention that both kingdoms were helping each other in the founding of the temple.
In the Kingdom of Sailendra dynasty embraced religion is Mahayana Buddhism. It is known from historical relics and artefacts of the Temple of the Kingdom was the institution of Mahayana Buddhism. It is seen as the foundation of Kalasan Temple which is dedicated to the goddess of Aryatara (personification of Prajnaparamita according to the flow of Tantrayana/Vajrayana (esoteric buddhism), one of the sect of Mahayana Buddhism) in the year 779 a.d. from the epigraphic record is well known that one of the Kings of Sailendra dynasty in Java have a teacher named Kumaraghosa of Gaudidwipa (Bengal) who led the ceremony at the time of the inauguration of the statue of Manjusri. Likewise reported that there were other people diprasasti from Gujarat who ever did worship services in a certain Temple. The allegations date from news in India. King of the Pala dynasty of Dewapala (Bengal) in his 39th (between 856 and 860) gave some villages for the observance of a monastery at Nalanda, which was founded by King Suwarnadwipa Balaputradeva (Sumatra), grandson of the King of Java.
The kings who reigned in the days of Syailendra dynasty is Bhanu (754-775), Vishnu (775-782), Indra (782-812), Samarottungga (812-833) and Balaputra (833-856). Inscriptions of Syailendra Kalasan inscription was in 778, using letters pranagari and Sanskrit; Kelurak inscription near Yogyakarta in 782, also wear the letter a pre-nagari and Sanskrit; Karang Tengah Inscription near Temanggung in 824 in Sanskrit language and old Javanese Kahulunan Inscriptions, Kedu, in 842 written in Ancient Javanese language and letters.
An information coming from the biography of amoghavajra and, at the same time, his master, vajrabodhi seems to fill this gap. Both of them were regarded as patriachs of mantrayana school and disembarked in Java in the first half of eight century AD[5].
Notwithstanding the foregoing circumstances in Central Java is not the same situation in South Sumatera. How does the Mahayana developed in Java? That question is difficult to answer. To note is the Kalurak inscription (782), which presumably relates also to the inauguration of the statue of Manjusri, mentioned that Manjusri also likened to the Triratna (triple gem) is also identified with Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswara. For the followers of the Mahayana in Central Java, presumably the Bodhisattva not distinguished with the gods of Hinduism.
In addition to inscriptions, there were temples which bear witness to Buddhism in Central Java. The temple gives a lot more explanation. The temples that build in this era, that is:
ñ  Kalasan Temple, Near Jogjakarta, was built on 778 AD.
ñ  Sari Temple, near Kalasan Temple.
ñ  Borobudur Temple, near Magelang, was built on 826 AD.
ñ  Mendut Temple, eastern side of Borobudur Temple, was built on 809 AD.
ñ  Pawon Temple (is gate of the Borobudur Temple), was built on 826 AD.
ñ  Ngawen Temples Group, near Muntilan.
ñ  Sewu Temples Group, near Prambanan.
ñ  Plaosan Temples Group, Eastern side of Sewu Temple.
Kalingga (Ho-Ling)
Based on the records of the Tang Empire of China, in the mid-7th century in Central Java, there is an empire that embraced the Buddhist name Kaling. In China it is colloquially known as Ho Ling. it is very orderly and serene though led by a woman named Queen Sima. Ho ling then became science centers of Buddhism, and not least the Chinese from the Chinese came to the country to study Buddhism, although at the time of the Tang dynasty Buddhism became the official religion in the country of China.
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